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1.1 This Guidance Note aims to clarify the meaning of independence while performing their duties as Auditors. Professional integrity and independence is an essential characteristic of all the professions but is more so in the case of accountancy profession. Independence implies that the judgment of a person is not subordinate to the wishes or direction of another person who might have engaged him, or to his own self-interest. This document shall provide guidance to members about the specific circumstances and relationships that may create threats to independence. The Guidance Note also provides safeguards that should be employed by the auditors to mitigate the risk arising from such circumstances and relationship leading to the threats to independence.

1.2 It is not possible to define "independence" precisely. Rules of professional conduct dealing with independence are framed primarily with a certain objective. The rules themselves cannot create or ensure the existence of independence. Independence is a condition of mind as well as personal character and should not be confused with the superficial and visible standards of independence which are sometimes imposed by law. These legal standards may be relaxed or strengthened but the quality of independence remains unaltered.

1.3 There are two interlinked perspectives of independence of auditors, o­ne, independence of mind; and two, independence in appearance. The Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants, issued by International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) defines the term 'Independence' as follows:

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